Keith Levin, Center for Language and Speech Processing
Measures of acoustic similarity between words or other units are critical for segmental exemplar-based acoustic models, spoken term discovery, and query-by-example search. Dynamic time warping (DTW) alignment cost has been the most commonly used measure, but it has well-known inadequacies. Some recently proposed alternatives require large amounts of training data. In the interest of finding more efficient, accurate, and low-resource alternatives, we consider the problem of embedding speech segments of arbitrary length into fixed-dimensional spaces in which simple distances (such as cosine or Euclidean) serve as a proxy for linguistically meaningful (phonetic, morphological, etc.) dissimilarities. Such embeddings would enable efficient audio indexing and permit application of standard distance learning techniques to segmental acoustic modeling. In this paper, we explore several supervised and unsupervised approaches to this problem and evaluate them on an acoustic word discrimination task. We identify several embedding algorithms that match or improve upon the DTW baseline in low-resource settings.